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Census of European Studies
 
 
 

2014/12/01

Review: Verso un sistema partitico europeo transnazionale

 

Verso un sistema partitico europeo transnazionale
AA. VV. (edited by Marco Mascia)
Publisher: Cacucci Editore
City: Bari
Pages: 200
ISBN: 978-88-6611-373-7

Il problema di una più chiara e sostanziosa collocazione istituzionale e funzionale dei partiti politici nel sistema dell'Unione Europea rimane tuttora aperto quale parte della più ampia tematica dello sviluppo democratico e politico dell'Unione. L'esigenza di una dimensione autenticamente sistemica europea. quindi transnazionale, del partito politico è affrontata dagli autori nella prospettiva che potremmo chiamare di european party building all'interno di un più ampio processo di democratic institution building.

Gli interrogativi che si pongono, e si ripropongono, sono tanti. L'elezione diretta del Parlamento Europeo ha avuto un effetto positivo, di catalizzatore istituzionale rispetto allo sviluppo di un sistema di partiti a livello UE? Un più autonomo sistema partitico europeo sarà frutto di integrazione fra prresistenti partiti politici nazionali, oppure di creazione ex novo di entità partitiche transnazionali? Qual è il rapporto tra Gruppi politici del Parlamento Europeo e corrispettive (con)federazioni partitiche europee? Ammesso che il sistema politico dell'Unione riesca ad attrezzarsi di un proprio sotto-sistema partitico, quale sarà il peso di questo nei processi decisionali? Quale sarà l'identità del partito politico europeo: attore pollfunzionale o prevalentemente macchina elettorale?

L'approccio che caratterizza l'intero volume è di tipo rnultidisciplinare. Si intrecciano originali contributi di natura politologica, storica e giuridica.

Indice
Summaries
Premessa
Marco Mascia, Verso un sistema partitico europeo transnazionale
Francesca Longo, Un sistema partitico senza un governo dei partiti nell'Unione Europea?
Massimo Piermattei, I partiti dell'Unione: evoluzione storica e ricerche
Daniele Pasquinucci, La procedura uniforme per l'elezione del Parlamento Europeo
Maria Romana Allegri, Il finanziamento dei partiti politici europei: trasparenza, controllo e responsabilità
Salvatore Aloisio, L'Ufficio elettorale nazionale compie un piccolo passo nella direzione di una rilevanza giuridica dei partiti politici a livello europeo e contribuisce al dibattito sulla natura del Parlmento Europeo
Alice Cunha, "This time it's different"?: European Parliament Elections in Portugal
Fabio Zucca, Democrazia partecipativa e creazione dei partiti transnazionali: l'azione degli enti locali europei
Raffaella Cinquanta, Per un graduale trasferimento del potere politico dagli stati nazionali all'Europa: il MFE e i partiti (1969-1986)
Luca Barbaini, I gruppi intellettuali dell'Azione Cattolica Italiana fra rinnovamento ecclesiale, rilancio europeo e decolonizzazione. Dalla metà degli anni Cinquanta ai primi anni Sessanta
Giuliana Laschi, Tempo di elezioni: Europa e opinione pubblica in prospettiva storica
Emmanuelle Reungoat, Vers une démocratie européenne plus inclusive: pistes de réflexion
Stefano Quirico, Populismo e difesa delle istituzioni_o un dibattito pubblico europeo
Olga Bombardelli, Cittadinanza digitale e educazione (ed elezioni per il PE)
Stefania Panebianco, La difficile transizione democratica nel Vicinato Meridionale. Il ruolo dell'Unione Europea tra persistenza e cambiamento
Pietro De Perini, Transizioni democratiche e organizzazioni di società civile: l'impegno dell'UE all'indomani della "primavera araba"

Summaries

Marco Mascia, Verso un sistema partitico europeo transnazionale

The author deals with the issue, still unresolved, of a better defined and more substantial institutional and functional position for political parties in the European Union system. This subject is part of the broader, endemic problem of the democratic deficit and the political development of the Union. The need for a genuinely "systemic European" - hence transnational dimension of political parties is addressed by the author in terms of "European party-building", within the ongoing broader process of 'democratic institution-building' of the EU. The future of a genuine European party would be assured by its role of relevant actor of the transnational extension of democracy, that is as a vehicle of democracy in the glocal political space.

Francesca Longo, Un sistema partitico senza un governo dei partiti nell'Unione Europea?

An European party system seems to exist as a result of the relatively high degree of cohesion and competitiveness of the political groups at the European Parliament. Neverthless, the institurional design does not figure out a party government for the EU. This chapter analyses the contradiction of the European party system without a european party government ad it propones two possible scenarios for solution.

Massimo Piermattei, I partiti dell'Unione: evoluzione storica e ricerche

The transnational federations of European parties currently are one of the "weak point" in the field of the European studies. In this paper they are placed in the broader framework of the European integration process as a whole, to achieve two main goals: 1) to retrace the crucial joints and proposing a periodization which have marked the development of Euro parties in the history of EEC/EU, which political cultures (and how, when, why) have built a common federation; 2) to underline which disciplines have studied (and also in this case, how, when, why) the Euro parties and their contribute to the integration process, the state of the art and how the research in this field should be enhanced. These goals will be achieved through an interdisciplinary approach and with a diachronic view to paint a clearest picture possible.

Daniele Pasquinucci, La procedura uniforme per l'elezione del Parlamento Europeo

This essay reconstructs the attempts made by the European Parliament to develop a uniform procedure for its direct election. The first attempt dates back to 1952/53, and was conducted in the context of the Ad hoc Assembly charged with drafting the Statute of European political community. The second project was approved by the European Parliamentary Assembly in 1960. but did not pass the veto of the French Government, that was unwilling to hold the European elections. Not even the first direct elections of 1979 were held with a uniform electoral system. Since then, many attempts followed (the last of them by the British MEP Andrew Duff). These attempts have very partially aligned the national rules of the European vote. Nevertheless they have failed to fully achieve the goal of a true "European electoral system".

Maria Romana Allegri, Il finanziamento dei partiti politici europei: trasparenza, controllo e responsabilità

The new regulation on the statute and financing of European political parties has eventulally been approved, although it will apply only from 1st lanuary 2017. In comparison with the original Commission proposal of 2012 amended by the EP Commillee of Constitutional Affairs in April 2013, it turns out to be definitely weaker. One of the main failures is the dissolution of any obligation concerning a democratic internal structure of political parties: they are now committed only to the respect of the values in which the EU is founded in their programmes and activities. Moreover the influence of Member States on the registration, cancellation and sanctioning of political parties seems to be extortionate. Finally, as control procedures are devolvecl upon different bodies, among which a new Authority specifically designed for, the risk of overlaps is concrete.

Salvatore Aloisio, L'Ufficio elettorale nazionale compie un piccolo passo nella direzione di una rilevanza giuridica dei partiti politici a livello europeo e contribuisce al dibattito sulla natura del Parlamento Europeo

The paper comments on the decision of the "Ufficio elettorale nazionale " who admitted the presentation at the European elections without collecting signatures for a Partylist, which didn't have any Member of the European Parliament elecled in Italy, because it was a member of an European party with MEP. The Ufficio elettorale nazionale's opinions for its decision are based on Italian constitutional law and European law. In particular, it concludes that each citizen "is, therefore, part of a single European electorate." The paper comments on the decision in relation to the well-known judgment of the German Federal Constilutional Court of 30 June 2009 on the Lisbon Treaty (Lissabon Urteil) and the recent decisions that have challenged the legality of the threshold to participate in the allocation of seats.

Alice Cunha, "This time it's different"?: European Parliament Elections in Portugal

This text analyses the evolution of Portuguese voter's turnout in European Parliament (EP) elections,their voting behavior, parties' positions regarding European integration and provides an overview on the 2014 EP elections.

Fabio Zucca, Democrazia partecipativa e creazione dei partiti transnazionali: l'azione degli enti locali europei

The goal of internal decentralization as a part of the federal building of the United States of Europe was largely shared by the local government administrators who created the Conseil des communes d'Europe (CCE) in 1951. It was the result of the political contacts they established in the framework of socialist and catholic internationalism and of parties' international associationism. The essay retraces the steps of this process - among which the battle for the direct election of the European Parliament - which led to the development of a new political class aware of the necessity to provide all European political groups with new political tools such as the creation of transnational parties.

Raffaella Cinquanta, Per un graduale trasferimento del potere politico dagli stati nazionali all'Europa: il MFE e i partiti (1969-1986)

In the 70s the European Federalist Movement, as a part of the gradualist political theory and in order to start a progressive transfer of political power from the national to the European level in connection with the direct election of the EP, undertook specific and strategic actions on national political parties, launching, in Italy. an "Action on political parties for a democratic and effective European programme" and, in Europe. disseminating a "Manifesto for the European elect". These actions, which are still politically valuable and exemplary, aimed at persuading parties to solve national problems through the joint adoption of European policies and of a European political perspective. In the early 80s MFE advocated the creation of European parties while supporling Altiero Spinelli and the European Parliament in the constitutional struggle for a comprehensive reform of the Treaties.

Luca Barbaini, I gruppi intellettuali dell'Azione Cattolica Italiana fra rinnovamento ecclesiale, rilancio europeo e decolonizzazione. Dalla metà degli anni Cinquanta ai primi anni Sessanta

The essay focuses on the reflection-European intellectuals drawn up by groups linked to Catholic Action (AC) in the early fifties and the beginning of the next decade. With the renewal of the Church took place during the pontificate of John XXIll and Pacelli, the themes Europeans were combined into a new perspective by AC. The sources analyzed evidenced, for example, the need to overcome the old anticommunist feelings and openness to an international dimension more attentive to the role of the ONU in global governance. The essay does not pretend to analyze a topic still hard to turn. Through the analysis of specific cases, and particularly illustrative of some sources, it wili point instead to ask about the methodological criteria used in the study of the so-called Europeanism Catholic. understood in its political. cultural and religious.

Giuliana Laschi, Tempo di elezioni: Europa e opinione pubblica in prospettiva storica

This anicle aims at analyzing in a historical perspective the connection between information, citizenship and European elections, trying to determine whether and to what extent there is a link between citizens' interest in the direct elections to the European Parliament on the one hand and the attitude towards the process of European integration on the other. By means of a diachronic investigation based on the Eurobarometer surveys from 1979 to 2009, the essay highlights how the citizens' lack of attention for European elections cannot be attributed to Eurosceptic tendencies only, but to a more general growth of indifference and disaffection towards the political system.

Emmanuelle Reungoat, Vers une démocratie européenne plus inclusive: pistes de réflexion

Compared to European nation-states, the European Union increases the distance between ordinary citizens and political and ruling elite groups. This article explores two ways of reducing this gap and helping the EU to progressively become a more inclusive democracy. First institutional reforms are proposed, based on tools of direct participation of the citizens. Secondly, the organization of European elections and the place of political parties are analyzed in this regard. Finally the article underlines the great importance of making political conflict appear to help citzens' integration in the European political system. The article reflects and offers proposals toward a politicization of the EU in order to strengthen the empowerment of European citizens.

Stefano Quirico, Populismo e difesa delle istituzioni: un dibattito pubblico

This article focuses on the revival of nationalist and populist elements in connection with the economic crisis starting in 2007-08, that represents a threat for the EU future and the development of the European integration. On the basis of the approach of intellectuals like Ulrich Beck alld Jürgell Habermas, who stress the role of the political elites in the challenge by the nationalist and populist movements, the reflections by the main leaders are examined as voices of a European public debate: Angela Merkel, accused of favouring the re-nationalization of the European politics; François Hollande, considered by many observers the key-figure for a new social Europe; Sylvie Goulard and Mario Monti, determined supporters of the community method; Giorgio Napolitano, who connects the solution of the 'social question' to the reform of the European institutions; Daniel Cohn-Bendit and Guy Verhofstadt, theorists of a 'revolution' producing a real European federation.

Olga Bombardelli, Cittadinanza digitale e educazione

The EP elections 2014 take piace in a new context: the use of web communications and the construction of Transnational Parties are a new dimension of citizenship. This paper deals with two questions: I. Are digitai tools widening participation practices and the European dimension, or do they reduce responsibility and social-political engagement? 2. What can formal and informal education do for encourage active and competent citizenship with the help of digitai tools? Web communication can potentially support new forms of participation, anyway the risk of extremism and populism are not outweighed. Educational efforts for political literacy by the school and by social bodies should develope awareness, habits of selecting information, fostering responsibility and competent electoral choices.

Stefania Panebianco, La difficile transizione democratica nel Vicinato Meridionale. Il ruolo dell'Unione Europea tra persistenza e cambiamento

What has changed after the so-called Arab Spring? In order to provide an answer, this paper focuses upon the dynamics of persistence or change that emerged in these few years. In the short/medium term continuity and persistence seem rt prevail over reform and political change; but in the long term the logic of change and reform could replace a leopard-spot change that has been produced so far. The popular protest has expressed in fact a clear message: the fight against authoritarianism and socio-economic inequalities. The paper is focused upon two levels of analysis: a) at the domestic level it explores the Southern Neighbourhood; b) at the international level, in investigates the European Union (EU) and its democracy promotion strategy towards the Southern Neighbours. It derives thtr only the coexistence of bottom-up strategies with top-down strategies can chalienge the authoritarian rule that is still persistent in this area and the socialization to democracy that is proposed by the EU can produce some effects.

Pietro De Perini, Transizioni democratiche e organizzazioni di società civile: l'impegno dell'UE all'indomani della "primavera araba"

The article analyses the response that the EU has put in piace to support the participation of civil sociery organisations in the democratic transitions processes that are currently under way in the Mediterranean space. The attention is set on three different instruments developed, on EU initiative, following the so-called "Arab Uprising "; the Neighbourhood Civil Society Facility (NCSF), the European Endowmenl for Democracy (EDD) and the recent activities aimed at the promotion of intercultural dialogue (ICD). First, the article briefly outlines the modalities and the instruments used by the EU to involve civil society from Mediterranean countries in democratisation processes before the revolts of 2010-2011. Then, the focus is moved onto the novelties presented on this matter by the revision of the European Neighbourhood Policy (developed between 2011-2013) and, in this framework, onto the analysis of the Three mentioned instruments. The lalter are illustrated in a comprehensive policy perspective with a view to discuss their possibile added value to previous efforts of the EU in this field.


 
 
 
 
 
 

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